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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2752; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122752

Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

1
Department of Information Technology and Medical Statistics, Medical University of Lublin, 20-059 Lublin, Poland
2
Chair and Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, Medical University of Lublin, 20-059 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Virology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-059 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses)
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Abstract

Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between viral infection, SCC, demographic parameters, evidence of metastases and grading were also investigated. Fresh-frozen tumour tissue samples were collected from 146 patients with laryngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cancer. After DNA extraction, the DNA of the studied viruses was detected using polymerase chain rection (PCR) assay. Males (87.7%) with a history of smoking (70.6%) and alcohol abuse (59.6%) prevailed in the studied group. Histological type G2 was recognized in 64.4% cases. The patients were most frequently diagnosed with T2 stage (36.3%) and with N1 stage (45.8%). Infection with at least two viruses was detected in 56.2% of patients. In this group, co-infection with HPV/EBV was identified in 34.1% of cases, EBV/BKV in 23.2%, HPV/BKV in 22.0%, and HPV/EBV/BKV in 20.7%. No difference of multiple infection in different locations of cancer was observed. The prevalence of poorly differentiated tumours (G3) was more frequent in co-infection with all three viruses than EBV or BKV alone. A significant correlation was observed between tumour dimensions (T) and lymph-node involvement (N) in co-infected patients compared to single infection. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether co-infection plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of oncogenic transformation of oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal epithelial cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); laryngeal cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; oral cancer; Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); human papillomavirus (HPV); BK virus (BKV); co-infection squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); laryngeal cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; oral cancer; Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); human papillomavirus (HPV); BK virus (BKV); co-infection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Drop, B.; Strycharz-Dudziak, M.; Kliszczewska, E.; Polz-Dacewicz, M. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2752.

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