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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 416; doi:10.3390/ijms19020416

A Pathological Study of Acute Pulmonary Toxicity Induced by Inhaled Kanto Loam Powder

1
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama Minami, Tottori-shi, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
2
Laboratory of Pathology, School of Life and Environmental Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
3
School of Nursing, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka-shi, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan
4
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 615-8530, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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Abstract

The frequency and volume of Asian sand dust (ASD) (Kosa) are increasing in Japan, and it has been reported that ASD may cause adverse respiratory effects. The pulmonary toxicity of ASD has been previously analyzed in mice exposed to ASD particles by intratracheal instillation. To study the pulmonary toxicity induced by inhalation of ASD, ICR mice were exposed by inhalation to 50 or 200 mg/m3 Kanto loam powder, which resembles ASD in elemental composition and particle size, for 6 h a day over 1, 3, 6, 9, or 15 consecutive days. Histological examination revealed that Kanto loam powder induced acute inflammation in the whole lung at all the time points examined. The lesions were characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. The intensity of the inflammatory changes in the lung and number of neutrophils in both histological lesions and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) appeared to increase over time. Immunohistochemical staining showed interleukin (IL)-6- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-positive macrophages and a decrease in laminin positivity in the inflammatory lesions of the lung tissues. Electron microscopy revealed vacuolar degeneration in the alveolar epithelial cells close to the Kanto loam particles. The nitric oxide level in the BALF increased over time. These results suggest that inhaled Kanto loam powder may induce diffuse and acute pulmonary inflammation, which is associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asian sand dust; inhalation; Kanto loam powder; pulmonary toxicity Asian sand dust; inhalation; Kanto loam powder; pulmonary toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kobayashi, Y.; Shimada, A.; Morita, T.; Inoue, K.; Takano, H. A Pathological Study of Acute Pulmonary Toxicity Induced by Inhaled Kanto Loam Powder. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 416.

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