Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles in Plasma Using Dextran Sulphate Co-Precipitates Procoagulant Extracellular Vesicles
AbstractPlasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane vesicles involved in several biological processes including coagulation. Both coagulation and lipid metabolism are strongly associated with cardiovascular events. Lowering very-low- and low-density lipoprotein ((V)LDL) particles via dextran sulphate LDL apheresis also removes coagulation proteins. It remains unknown, however, how coagulation proteins are removed in apheresis. We hypothesize that plasma EVs that contain high levels of coagulation proteins are concomitantly removed with (V)LDL particles by dextran sulphate apheresis. For this, we precipitated (V)LDL particles from human plasma with dextran sulphate and analyzed the abundance of coagulation proteins and EVs in the precipitate. Coagulation pathway proteins, as demonstrated by proteomics and a bead-based immunoassay, were over-represented in the (V)LDL precipitate. In this precipitate, both bilayer EVs and monolayer (V)LDL particles were observed by electron microscopy. Separation of EVs from (V)LDL particles using density gradient centrifugation revealed that almost all coagulation proteins were present in the EVs and not in the (V)LDL particles. These EVs also showed a strong procoagulant activity. Our study suggests that dextran sulphate used in LDL apheresis may remove procoagulant EVs concomitantly with (V)LDL particles, leading to a loss of coagulation proteins from the blood. View Full-Text
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Wang, J.-W.; Zhang, Y.-N.; Sze, S.K.; van de Weg, S.M.; Vernooij, F.; Schoneveld, A.H.; Tan, S.-H.; Versteeg, H.H.; Timmers, L.; Lam, C.S.P.; de Kleijn, D.P.V. Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles in Plasma Using Dextran Sulphate Co-Precipitates Procoagulant Extracellular Vesicles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 94.
Wang J-W, Zhang Y-N, Sze SK, van de Weg SM, Vernooij F, Schoneveld AH, Tan S-H, Versteeg HH, Timmers L, Lam CSP, de Kleijn DPV. Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles in Plasma Using Dextran Sulphate Co-Precipitates Procoagulant Extracellular Vesicles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(1):94.Chicago/Turabian Style
Wang, Jiong-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Sze, Siu K.; van de Weg, Sander M.; Vernooij, Flora; Schoneveld, Arjan H.; Tan, Sock-Hwee; Versteeg, Henri H.; Timmers, Leo; Lam, Carolyn S.P.; de Kleijn, Dominique P.V. 2018. "Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles in Plasma Using Dextran Sulphate Co-Precipitates Procoagulant Extracellular Vesicles." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 1: 94.
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