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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010189

3,3′-Diindolylmethane Suppressed Cyprodinil-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastatic-Related Behaviors of Human Endometrial Ishikawa Cells via an Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Pathway

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Chungbuk, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Molecular Approach to Tumor Metastases)
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Abstract

Cyprodinil (CYP) is a pyrimidine amine fungicide that has been extensively used in agricultural areas. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a derivative of the dietary phytoestrogen, indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is derived from cruciferous vegetables and considered to be a cancer-preventive phytonutrient agent. In this study, the effects of CYP and DIM were examined on the cell viability, invasion, and metastasis of human endometrial cancer cells, Ishikawa, via epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). CYP increased the level of cell viability of Ishikawa cells compared to DMSO as a control, as did E2. Ishikawa cells lost cell-to-cell contact and obtained a spindle-shaped or fibroblast-like morphology in response to the application of E2 or CYP by the cell morphology assay. In the cell migration and invasion assay, CYP enhanced the ability of migration and invasion of Ishikawa cells, as did E2. E2 and CYP increased the expressions of N-cadherin and Snail proteins, while decreasing the expression of E-cadherin protein as EMT-related markers. In addition, E2 and CYP increased the protein expressions of cathepsin D and MMP-9, metastasis-related markers. Conversely, CYP-induced EMT, cell migration, and invasion were reversed by fulvestrant (ICI 182,780) as an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, indicating that CYP exerts estrogenic activity by mediating these processes via an ER-dependent pathway. Similar to ICI 182,780, DIM significantly suppressed E2 and CYP-induced proliferation, EMT, migration, and invasion of Ishikawa cancer cells. Overall, the present study revealed that DIM has an antiestrogenic chemopreventive effect to withdraw the cancer-enhancing effect of E2 and CYP, while CYP has the capacity to enhance the metastatic potential of estrogen-responsive endometrial cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyprodinil (CYP); 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM); epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); metastasis cyprodinil (CYP); 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM); epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); metastasis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, B.-G.; Kim, J.-W.; Kim, S.-M.; Go, R.-E.; Hwang, K.-A.; Choi, K.-C. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Suppressed Cyprodinil-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastatic-Related Behaviors of Human Endometrial Ishikawa Cells via an Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Pathway. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 189.

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