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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 187; doi:10.3390/ijms19010187

Protective Effects of Protocatechuic Acid on Seizure-Induced Neuronal Death

1
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
2
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada
3
College of Medicine, Neurology, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuron Cell Death)
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Abstract

Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of phenolic acid found in green tea and has been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of PCA on pilocarpine seizure-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus has not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of PCA on seizure-induced brain injury. Epileptic seizure was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine (25 mg/kg) in adult male rats, and PCA (30 mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space for three consecutive days after the seizure. Neuronal injury and oxidative stress were evaluated three days after a seizure. To confirm whether PCA increases neuronal survival and reduced oxidative injury in the hippocampus, we performed Fluoro-Jade-B (FJB) staining to detect neuronal death and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) staining to detect oxidative stress after the seizure. In the present study, we found that, compared to the seizure vehicle-treated group, PCA administration reduced neuronal death and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. To verify whether a decrease of neuronal death by PCA treatment was due to reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, we measured glutathione with N-ethylmaleimide (GS-NEM) levels in hippocampal neurons. A seizure-induced reduction in the hippocampal neuronal GSH concentration was preserved by PCA treatment. We also examined whether microglia activation was affected by the PCA treatment after a seizure, using CD11b staining. Here, we found that seizure-induced microglia activation was significantly reduced by the PCA treatment. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that PCA deserves further investigation as a therapeutic agent for reducing hippocampal neuronal death after epileptic seizures. View Full-Text
Keywords: epilepsy; pilocarpine; neuron death; protocatechuic acid; microglia; oxidative stress epilepsy; pilocarpine; neuron death; protocatechuic acid; microglia; oxidative stress
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Lee, S.H.; Choi, B.Y.; Kho, A.R.; Jeong, J.H.; Hong, D.K.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Lee, M.W.; Song, H.K.; Choi, H.C.; Suh, S.W. Protective Effects of Protocatechuic Acid on Seizure-Induced Neuronal Death. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 187.

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