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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010176

Galectin-12 in Cellular Differentiation, Apoptosis and Polarization

1,2,3,4
,
5
and
6,7,*
1
School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2
Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
3
Department of Gynecology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
4
Research Center for Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5
Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
6
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
7
Department of Dermatology, University of California-Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95816, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 7 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Galectins in Cancer and Translational Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [889 KB, uploaded 7 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

Galectin-12 is a member of a family of mammalian lectins characterized by their affinity for β-galactosides and consensus amino acid sequences. The protein structure consists of a single polypeptide chain containing two carbohydrate-recognition domains joined by a linker region. Galectin-12 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, but is also detected in macrophages and other leukocytes. Downregulation of galectin-12 in mouse 3T3-L1 cells impairs their differentiation into adipocytes. Conversely, overexpression of galectin-12 in vitro induces cell cycle arrest in G1 and apoptosis. Upregulation of galectin-12 and initiation of G1 cell cycle arrest are associated with driving pre-adipocytes toward terminal differentiation. Galectin-12 deficiency increases insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in obese animals. Galectin-12 inhibits macrophage polarization to the M2 population, enhancing inflammation and decreasing insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. Galectin-12 also affects myeloid differentiation, which is associated with chemotherapy resistance. In addition to highlighting the above-mentioned aspects, this review also discusses the potential clinical applications of modulating the function of galectin-12. View Full-Text
Keywords: galectin-12; differentiation; adipogenesis; cellular plasticity galectin-12; differentiation; adipogenesis; cellular plasticity
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Wan, L.; Yang, R.-Y.; Liu, F.-T. Galectin-12 in Cellular Differentiation, Apoptosis and Polarization. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 176.

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