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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010134

Structure and Chromosomal Organization of Yeast Genes Regulated by Topoisomerase II

1
Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona, CSIC, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Computational Genomics Group, Department of Biology, University of Crete, 70013 Herakleion, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Topoisomerases)
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Abstract

Cellular DNA topoisomerases (topo I and topo II) are highly conserved enzymes that regulate the topology of DNA during normal genome transactions, such as DNA transcription and replication. In budding yeast, topo I is dispensable whereas topo II is essential, suggesting fundamental and exclusive roles for topo II, which might include the functions of the topo IIa and topo IIb isoforms found in mammalian cells. In this review, we discuss major findings of the structure and chromosomal organization of genes regulated by topo II in budding yeast. Experimental data was derived from short (10 min) and long term (120 min) responses to topo II inactivation in top-2 ts mutants. First, we discuss how short term responses reveal a subset of yeast genes that are regulated by topo II depending on their promoter architecture. These short term responses also uncovered topo II regulation of transcription across multi-gene clusters, plausibly by common DNA topology management. Finally, we examine the effects of deactivated topo II on the elongation of RNA transcripts. Each study provides an insight into the particular chromatin structure that interacts with the activity of topo II. These findings are of notable clinical interest as numerous anti-cancer therapies interfere with topo II activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: top1; top2; DNA transcription; epigenetics; gene promoter; chromatin structure; S. cerevisiae top1; top2; DNA transcription; epigenetics; gene promoter; chromatin structure; S. cerevisiae
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Joshi, R.S.; Nikolaou, C.; Roca, J. Structure and Chromosomal Organization of Yeast Genes Regulated by Topoisomerase II. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 134.

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