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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2751; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122751

A Topology-Centric View on Mitotic Chromosome Architecture

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Rua da Quinta Grande 6, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal
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Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Topoisomerases)
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Abstract

Mitotic chromosomes are long-known structures, but their internal organization and the exact process by which they are assembled are still a great mystery in biology. Topoisomerase II is crucial for various aspects of mitotic chromosome organization. The unique ability of this enzyme to untangle topologically intertwined DNA molecules (catenations) is of utmost importance for the resolution of sister chromatid intertwines. Although still controversial, topoisomerase II has also been proposed to directly contribute to chromosome compaction, possibly by promoting chromosome self-entanglements. These two functions raise a strong directionality issue towards topoisomerase II reactions that are able to disentangle sister DNA molecules (in trans) while compacting the same DNA molecule (in cis). Here, we review the current knowledge on topoisomerase II role specifically during mitosis, and the mechanisms that directly or indirectly regulate its activity to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. In particular, we discuss how the activity or directionality of this enzyme could be regulated by the SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes) complexes, predominantly cohesin and condensin, throughout mitosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitotic chromosomes; chromosome condensation; mitosis; topoisomerase II; condensin; cohesin; ultra-fine bridges; sister chromatid resolution; catenation; sister chromatid intertwines mitotic chromosomes; chromosome condensation; mitosis; topoisomerase II; condensin; cohesin; ultra-fine bridges; sister chromatid resolution; catenation; sister chromatid intertwines
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Piskadlo, E.; Oliveira, R.A. A Topology-Centric View on Mitotic Chromosome Architecture. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2751.

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