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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1935; doi:10.3390/ijms18091935

Metabolic and Homeostatic Changes in Seizures and Acquired Epilepsy—Mitochondria, Calcium Dynamics and Reactive Oxygen Species

Department of Neurology, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Khatam Alanbia Hospital, Tehran 1996836111, Iran
Department of Neuroscience, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9177948564, Iran
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
Epilepsy Research Center, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Acquired epilepsies can arise as a consequence of brain injury and result in unprovoked seizures that emerge after a latent period of epileptogenesis. These epilepsies pose a major challenge to clinicians as they are present in the majority of patients seen in a common outpatient epilepsy clinic and are prone to pharmacoresistance, highlighting an unmet need for new treatment strategies. Metabolic and homeostatic changes are closely linked to seizures and epilepsy, although, surprisingly, no potential treatment targets to date have been translated into clinical practice. We summarize here the current knowledge about metabolic and homeostatic changes in seizures and acquired epilepsy, maintaining a particular focus on mitochondria, calcium dynamics, reactive oxygen species and key regulators of cellular metabolism such as the Nrf2 pathway. Finally, we highlight research gaps that will need to be addressed in the future which may help to translate these findings into clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: epilepsy; reactive oxygen species; mitochondria; Nrf2; calcium; cell death epilepsy; reactive oxygen species; mitochondria; Nrf2; calcium; cell death

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kovac, S.; Dinkova Kostova, A.T.; Herrmann, A.M.; Melzer, N.; Meuth, S.G.; Gorji, A. Metabolic and Homeostatic Changes in Seizures and Acquired Epilepsy—Mitochondria, Calcium Dynamics and Reactive Oxygen Species. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1935.

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