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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2269; doi:10.3390/ijms18112269

Hungry Neurons: Metabolic Insights on Seizure Dynamics

1
Krembil Research Institute, Fundamental Neurobiology, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada
2
Sunnybrook Research Institute, Medical Biophysics, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada
3
Department of Medicine & Physiology, and Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
4
Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract

Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dys)function and extracellular ionic species (dys)regulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilization) of seizures pathophysiology revealing (in most cases) reduced metabolism in the inter-ictal period and increased metabolism in the seconds preceding and during the appearance of seizures. In the present review, we summarize the clinical and preclinical observations showing metabolic dysregulation during epileptogenesis, seizure initiation, and termination, and in the inter-ictal period. Recent preclinical studies have shown that 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG, a glycolysis blocker) is a novel therapeutic approach to reduce seizures. Furthermore, we present initial evidence for the effectiveness of 2-DG in arresting 4-Aminopyridine induced neocortical seizures in vivo in the mouse. View Full-Text
Keywords: epilepsy; metabolism; seizures; beta hydroxybutyrate; 2 deoxyglucose epilepsy; metabolism; seizures; beta hydroxybutyrate; 2 deoxyglucose
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Bazzigaluppi, P.; Ebrahim Amini, A.; Weisspapir, I.; Stefanovic, B.; Carlen, P.L. Hungry Neurons: Metabolic Insights on Seizure Dynamics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2269.

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