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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1859; doi:10.3390/ijms18091859

Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Conserved and Distinct Molecular Mechanisms of Al Resistance in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Leaves

1
Research Centre for Plant RNA Signaling , College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, China
2
Global Institute for Food Security, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 4J8, Canada
3
State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
4
College of Resource and Environment, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
These authors have contributed equally to the present work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 27 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Abstract

Being an Al-accumulating crop, buckwheat detoxifies and tolerates Al not only in roots but also in leaves. While much progress has recently been made toward Al toxicity and resistance mechanisms in roots, little is known about the molecular basis responsible for detoxification and tolerance processes in leaves. Here, we carried out transcriptome analysis of buckwheat leaves in response to Al stress (20 µM, 24 h). We obtained 33,931 unigenes with 26,300 unigenes annotated in the NCBI database, and identified 1063 upregulated and 944 downregulated genes under Al stress. Functional category analysis revealed that genes related to protein translation, processing, degradation and metabolism comprised the biological processes most affected by Al, suggesting that buckwheat leaves maintain flexibility under Al stress by rapidly reprogramming their physiology and metabolism. Analysis of genes related to transcription regulation revealed that a large proportion of chromatin-regulation genes are specifically downregulated by Al stress, whereas transcription factor genes are overwhelmingly upregulated. Furthermore, we identified 78 upregulated and 22 downregulated genes that encode transporters. Intriguingly, only a few genes were overlapped with root Al-regulated transporter genes, which include homologs of AtMATE, ALS1, STAR1, ALS3 and a divalent ion symporter. In addition, we identified a subset of genes involved in development, in which genes associated with flowering regulation were important. Based on these data, it is proposed that buckwheat leaves develop conserved and distinct mechanisms to cope with Al toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: aluminum toxicity; buckwheat; cell wall; chromatin modification; transcription regulation; transporter aluminum toxicity; buckwheat; cell wall; chromatin modification; transcription regulation; transporter
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, W.W.; Xu, J.M.; Jin, J.F.; Lou, H.Q.; Fan, W.; Yang, J.L. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Conserved and Distinct Molecular Mechanisms of Al Resistance in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Leaves. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1859.

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