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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1662; doi:10.3390/ijms18081662

Elevated Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor and Proenkephalin Serum Levels Predict the Development of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery

1
Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2
Department of Intensive and Intermediate Care, University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
3
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
4
Sphingotec GmbH, 16761 Hennigsdorf, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Satohiro Masuda
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Drug-Induced Organ Injury)
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Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI) develops in up to 40% of patients after cardiac surgery. The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been identified as a biomarker for incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proenkephalin (proENK) also has been shown to be a biomarker for renal dysfunction. We hypothesized that pre-surgery suPAR and proENK levels might predict AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Consecutive patients (n = 107) undergoing elective cardiac surgery were studied prospectively. Clinical data, laboratory parameters, suPAR and proENK serum levels were assessed before operation, after operation and days one and four post-operatively. A total of 21 (19.6%) patients developed AKI within the first four days after elective surgery. Serum levels of suPAR and proENK, but not of creatinine, were significantly higher before surgery in these patients compared to those patients without AKI. This difference remained significant for suPAR, if patients with or without AKI were matched for risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, CKD). If cardiac surgery patients with pre-existing CKD (n = 10) were excluded, only pre-operative suPAR but not proENK serum levels remained significantly elevated in patients with subsequent AKI. Thus, our findings indicate that suPAR may be a predictive biomarker for AKI in the context of cardiac surgery, even in patients without underlying CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute kidney injury; soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor; suPAR; proenkephalin; pro-ENK; cardiac surgery; biomarker; acute kidney failure acute kidney injury; soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor; suPAR; proenkephalin; pro-ENK; cardiac surgery; biomarker; acute kidney failure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mossanen, J.C.; Pracht, J.; Jansen, T.U.; Buendgens, L.; Stoppe, C.; Goetzenich, A.; Struck, J.; Autschbach, R.; Marx, G.; Tacke, F. Elevated Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor and Proenkephalin Serum Levels Predict the Development of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1662.

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