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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1556; doi:10.3390/ijms18071556

Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) Enhances Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition, and SPARC Expression is Associated with Tumor Grade in Head and Neck Cancer

1
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
2
Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
4
Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a secreted protein which is involved in various biological processes. SPARC expression is associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, the SPARC-induced signaling pathway was not fully understood in head and neck cancer. In this study, our results showed that SPARC treatment promoted cell proliferation and migration in head and neck cancer cell lines FaDu and Detroit 562. In addition, SPARC induced expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators, including Slug, Snail, and Twist in Detroit 562. The results of phospho-kinase array analysis showed that SPARC treatment increased phosphorylation of some molecules including protein kinase B (PKB/AKT), ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), and extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERK). The expression of SPARC-induced EMT regulator Slug was suppressed by AKT inhibitor, but not ERK and RSK inhibitors. The SPARC expression in grade IV tumor samples is higher when compared to that in grade I–III tumor samples. Our results suggest that SPARC treatment enhances the EMT signaling pathway via activation of AKT, and exogenous SPARC and tumor expressing SPARC might be associated with tumor progression in head and neck cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine; proliferation; migration; epithelial mesenchymal transition; head and neck cancer secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine; proliferation; migration; epithelial mesenchymal transition; head and neck cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, C.-H.; Yen, M.-C.; Liao, S.-H.; Hsu, Y.-L.; Lai, C.-S.; Chang, K.-P.; Hsu, Y.-L. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) Enhances Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition, and SPARC Expression is Associated with Tumor Grade in Head and Neck Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1556.

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