Inhibitory Effects of Trapping Agents of Sulfur Drug Reactive Intermediates against Major Human Cytochrome P450 Isoforms
AbstractIn some cases, the formation of reactive species from the metabolism of xenobiotics has been linked to toxicity and therefore it is imperative to detect potential bioactivation for candidate drugs during drug discovery. Reactive species can covalently bind to trapping agents in in vitro incubations of compound with human liver microsomes (HLM) fortified with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), resulting in a stable conjugate of trapping agent and reactive species, thereby facilitating analytical detection and providing evidence of short-lived reactive metabolites. Since reactive metabolites are typically generated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) oxidation, it is important to ensure high concentrations of trapping agents are not inhibiting the activities of CYP isoforms. Here we assessed the inhibitory properties of fourteen trapping agents against the major human CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A). Based on our findings, eleven trapping agents displayed inhibition, three of which had IC50 values less than 1 mM (2-mercaptoethanol, N-methylmaleimide and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)). Three trapping agents (dimedone, N-acetyl-lysine and arsenite) did not inhibit CYP isoforms at concentrations tested. To illustrate effects of CYP inhibition by trapping agents on reactive intermediate trapping, an example drug (ticlopidine) and trapping agent (NEM) were chosen for further studies. For the same amount of ticlopidine (1 μM), increasing concentrations of the trapping agent NEM (0.007–40 mM) resulted in a bell-shaped response curve of NEM-trapped ticlopidine S-oxide (TSO-NEM), due to CYP inhibition by NEM. Thus, trapping studies should be designed to include several concentrations of trapping agent to ensure optimal trapping of reactive metabolites. View Full-Text
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Sodhi, J.K.; Delarosa, E.M.; Halladay, J.S.; Driscoll, J.P.; Mulder, T.; Dansette, P.M.; Khojasteh, S.C. Inhibitory Effects of Trapping Agents of Sulfur Drug Reactive Intermediates against Major Human Cytochrome P450 Isoforms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1553.
Sodhi JK, Delarosa EM, Halladay JS, Driscoll JP, Mulder T, Dansette PM, Khojasteh SC. Inhibitory Effects of Trapping Agents of Sulfur Drug Reactive Intermediates against Major Human Cytochrome P450 Isoforms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(7):1553.Chicago/Turabian Style
Sodhi, Jasleen K.; Delarosa, Erlie M.; Halladay, Jason S.; Driscoll, James P.; Mulder, Teresa; Dansette, Patrick M.; Khojasteh, S. C. 2017. "Inhibitory Effects of Trapping Agents of Sulfur Drug Reactive Intermediates against Major Human Cytochrome P450 Isoforms." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 7: 1553.
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