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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1514; doi:10.3390/ijms18071514

Understanding the Role of Non-Coding RNAs in Bladder Cancer: From Dark Matter to Valuable Therapeutic Targets

1
Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu-Hatieganu”, Cluj-Napoca 400337, Romania
2
MedFuture Research Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu-Hatieganu”, Cluj-Napoca 400349, Romania
3
Department of Urology, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, Cluj-Napoca 400015, Romania
4
Department of Urology, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca 400012, Romania
5
Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca 400015, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1777 KB, uploaded 13 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

The mortality and morbidity that characterize bladder cancer compel this malignancy into the category of hot topics in terms of biomolecular research. Therefore, a better knowledge of the specific molecular mechanisms that underlie the development and progression of bladder cancer is demanded. Tumor heterogeneity among patients with similar diagnosis, as well as intratumor heterogeneity, generates difficulties in terms of targeted therapy. Furthermore, late diagnosis represents an ongoing issue, significantly reducing the response to therapy and, inevitably, the overall survival. The role of non-coding RNAs in bladder cancer emerged in the last decade, revealing that microRNAs (miRNAs) may act as tumor suppressor genes, respectively oncogenes, but also as biomarkers for early diagnosis. Regarding other types of non-coding RNAs, especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are extensively reviewed in this article, their exact roles in tumorigenesis are—for the time being—not as evident as in the case of miRNAs, but, still, clearly suggested. Therefore, this review covers the non-coding RNA expression profile of bladder cancer patients and their validated target genes in bladder cancer cell lines, with repercussions on processes such as proliferation, invasiveness, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and other molecular pathways which are specific for the malignant transformation of cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: bladder cancer; non-coding RNA; target gene; Warburg effect bladder cancer; non-coding RNA; target gene; Warburg effect
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pop-Bica, C.; Gulei, D.; Cojocneanu-Petric, R.; Braicu, C.; Petrut, B.; Berindan-Neagoe, I. Understanding the Role of Non-Coding RNAs in Bladder Cancer: From Dark Matter to Valuable Therapeutic Targets. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1514.

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