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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1496; doi:10.3390/ijms18071496

Clinical Applications of Autophagy Proteins in Cancer: From Potential Targets to Biomarkers

1
Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L3, Canada
2
Interdisciplinary Oncology Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L3, Canada
3
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
4
Centre for Cell Biology, Development, and Disease, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy at the Intersection of the Immune System and Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [737 KB, uploaded 11 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Autophagy, a lysosome-mediated intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, plays multiple context-dependent roles in tumorigenesis and treatment resistance. Encouraging results from various preclinical studies have led to the initiation of numerous clinical trials with the intention of targeting autophagy in various cancers. Accumulating knowledge of the particular mechanisms and players involved in different steps of autophagy regulation led to the ongoing discovery of small molecule inhibitors designed to disrupt this highly orchestrated process. However, the development of validated autophagy-related biomarkers, essential for rational selection of patients entering clinical trials involving autophagy inhibitors, is lagging behind. One possible source of biomarkers for this purpose is the autophagy machinery itself. In this review, we address the recent trends, challenges and advances in the assessment of the biomarker potential of clinically relevant autophagy proteins in human cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; cancer; biomarkers; immunohistochemistry autophagy; cancer; biomarkers; immunohistochemistry
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Bortnik, S.; Gorski, S.M. Clinical Applications of Autophagy Proteins in Cancer: From Potential Targets to Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1496.

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