Next Article in Journal
Overexpression of S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine Synthetase 2 from Sugar Beet M14 Increased Arabidopsis Tolerance to Salt and Oxidative Stress
Next Article in Special Issue
Melatonin: A Review of Its Potential Functions and Effects on Dental Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
Transcriptome Sequencing of Dianthus spiculifolius and Analysis of the Genes Involved in Responses to Combined Cold and Drought Stress
Previous Article in Special Issue
Beneficial Effects of Melatonin on the In Vitro Maturation of Sheep Oocytes and Its Relation to Melatonin Receptors
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 843; doi:10.3390/ijms18040843

Melatonin, a Full Service Anti-Cancer Agent: Inhibition of Initiation, Progression and Metastasis

1
Department of Cell Systems and Anatomy, UT Health, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
2
Centro de Investigacion Biomedica de Occidente, Del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara 44340, Mexico
3
Centro de Investigacion Biomedica, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18916, Spain
4
Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan, Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
5
Department of Molecular Medicine, UT Health, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrzej Slominski
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5855 KB, uploaded 17 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

There is highly credible evidence that melatonin mitigates cancer at the initiation, progression and metastasis phases. In many cases, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these inhibitory actions have been proposed. What is rather perplexing, however, is the large number of processes by which melatonin reportedly restrains cancer development and growth. These diverse actions suggest that what is being observed are merely epiphenomena of an underlying more fundamental action of melatonin that remains to be disclosed. Some of the arresting actions of melatonin on cancer are clearly membrane receptor-mediated while others are membrane receptor-independent and involve direct intracellular actions of this ubiquitously-distributed molecule. While the emphasis of melatonin/cancer research has been on the role of the indoleamine in restraining breast cancer, this is changing quickly with many cancer types having been shown to be susceptible to inhibition by melatonin. There are several facets of this research which could have immediate applications at the clinical level. Many studies have shown that melatonin’s co-administration improves the sensitivity of cancers to inhibition by conventional drugs. Even more important are the findings that melatonin renders cancers previously totally resistant to treatment sensitive to these same therapies. Melatonin also inhibits molecular processes associated with metastasis by limiting the entrance of cancer cells into the vascular system and preventing them from establishing secondary growths at distant sites. This is of particular importance since cancer metastasis often significantly contributes to death of the patient. Another area that deserves additional consideration is related to the capacity of melatonin in reducing the toxic consequences of anti-cancer drugs while increasing their efficacy. Although this information has been available for more than a decade, it has not been adequately exploited at the clinical level. Even if the only beneficial actions of melatonin in cancer patients are its ability to attenuate acute and long-term drug toxicity, melatonin should be used to improve the physical wellbeing of the patients. The experimental findings, however, suggest that the advantages of using melatonin as a co-treatment with conventional cancer therapies would far exceed improvements in the wellbeing of the patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionizing radiation; antioxidant; free radicals; apoptosis; angiogenesis; molecular mechanisms; invasion; breast; prostate; melatonin receptors; chemotherapy ionizing radiation; antioxidant; free radicals; apoptosis; angiogenesis; molecular mechanisms; invasion; breast; prostate; melatonin receptors; chemotherapy
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Reiter, R.J.; Rosales-Corral, S.A.; Tan, D.-X.; Acuna-Castroviejo, D.; Qin, L.; Yang, S.-F.; Xu, K. Melatonin, a Full Service Anti-Cancer Agent: Inhibition of Initiation, Progression and Metastasis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 843.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top