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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 742; doi:10.3390/ijms18040742

Possible Roles of CC- and CXC-Chemokines in Regulating Bovine Endometrial Function during Early Pregnancy

1
Division of Animal Breeding and Reproduction Research, Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Ibaraki 305-0901, Japan
2
Division of Animal Sciences, Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan
3
Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Iwate University, Iwate 020-8550, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martin J. Stone
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Chemokine-Receptor Interactions and Functions)
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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine the possible roles of chemokines in regulating bovine endometrial function during early pregnancy. The expression of six chemokines, including CCL2, CCL8, CCL11, CCL14, CCL16, and CXCL10, was higher in the endometrium at 15 and 18 days of pregnancy than at the same days in non-pregnant animals. Immunohistochemical staining showed that chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CXCR3) were expressed in the epithelial cells and glandular epithelial cells of the bovine endometrium as well as in the fetal trophoblast obtained from a cow on day 18 of pregnancy. The addition of interferon-τ (IFNT) to an endometrial tissue culture system increased CCL8 and CXCL10 expression in the tissues, but did not affect CCL2, CCL11, and CCL16 expression. CCL14 expression by these tissues was inhibited by IFNT. CCL16, but not other chemokines, clearly stimulated interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and myxovirus-resistance gene 1 (MX1) expression in these tissues. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression decreased after stimulation with CCL8 and CCL14, and oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression was decreased by CCL2, CCL8, CCL14, and CXCL10. Collectively, the expression of chemokine genes is increased in the endometrium during early pregnancy. These genes may contribute to the regulation of endometrial function by inhibiting COX2 and OTR expression, subsequently decreasing prostaglandin production and preventing luteolysis in cows. View Full-Text
Keywords: cow; endometrium; chemokines; tissue culture; pregnancy cow; endometrium; chemokines; tissue culture; pregnancy
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Sakumoto, R.; Hayashi, K.-G.; Fujii, S.; Kanahara, H.; Hosoe, M.; Furusawa, T.; Kizaki, K. Possible Roles of CC- and CXC-Chemokines in Regulating Bovine Endometrial Function during Early Pregnancy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 742.

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