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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 702; doi:10.3390/ijms18040702

In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Structural Organization of Chs3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

1
Department of Biology and Chemistry, University of Osnabrück, 49068 Osnabrück, Germany
2
Institute of Biology, University of Siegen, 57068 Siegen, Germany
3
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biophysics, Kansas-State University, Manhattan 66506, KS, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mateus Webba da Silva
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Chitin biosynthesis in yeast is accomplished by three chitin synthases (Chs) termed Chs1, Chs2 and Chs3, of which the latter accounts for most of the chitin deposited within the cell wall. While the overall structures of Chs1 and Chs2 are similar to those of other chitin synthases from fungi and arthropods, Chs3 lacks some of the C-terminal transmembrane helices raising questions regarding its structure and topology. To fill this gap of knowledge, we performed bioinformatic analyses and protease protection assays that revealed significant information about the catalytic domain, the chitin-translocating channel and the interfacial helices in between. In particular, we identified an amphipathic, crescent-shaped α-helix attached to the inner side of the membrane that presumably controls the channel entrance and a finger helix pushing the polymer into the channel. Evidence has accumulated in the past years that chitin synthases form oligomeric complexes, which may be necessary for the formation of chitin nanofibrils. However, the functional significance for living yeast cells has remained elusive. To test Chs3 oligomerization in vivo, we used bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We detected oligomeric complexes at the bud neck, the lateral plasma membrane, and in membranes of Golgi vesicles, and analyzed their transport route using various trafficking mutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: di-/oligomeric complexes; BiFC; chitin synthase; Chs3; proteinase K protection assays; topology; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; yeast di-/oligomeric complexes; BiFC; chitin synthase; Chs3; proteinase K protection assays; topology; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; yeast
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gohlke, S.; Muthukrishnan, S.; Merzendorfer, H. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Structural Organization of Chs3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 702.

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