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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 479; doi:10.3390/ijms18030479

Chemical Characterization of Enteromorpha prolifera Extract Obtained by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction and Its Influence on the Metabolic Activity of Caco-2

1
Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25 St., 50–372 Wrocław, Poland
2
Scanning Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Science, Kożuchowska 5B St., 50–631 Wrocław, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yongsheng Chen
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Based Bio-Renewable Energy for Sustainability)
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Abstract

The green seaweed Enteromorpha prolifera was used as a feedstock for the production of enzymatic hydrolysate using cellulase. The selection of the conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass was carried out for different enzyme doses and incubation periods. The obtained extract was examined in terms of its multielemental composition, content of polyphenols and antibacterial properties (tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Additionally, its influence on the metabolic activity of human colon epithelial cells (Caco-2) was analyzed. The tested concentrations of extract using an in vitro model were 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/mL. The hydrolysis yield in the most suitable experimental conditions (8-h process and 50 and 100 µL of cellulase) was 36%. Micro- and macroelements were poorly extracted from the algal biomass. Total phenolic content was 55 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry mass of extract. The cytotoxic effect of extracts, related to the inhibition of the metabolic activity of Caco-2, was noted only after 24 h. In turn, cultures of Caco-2 propagated with extracts for 72 h were characterized by significantly elevated metabolism (the concentration of extracts ranged from 62.5 to 1000 µg/mL, p < 0.05). Obtained results indicated the high biological activity of the prepared extracts; however, the observed effects did not occur in a dose-dependent manner. View Full-Text
Keywords: algae; cellulase; enzymatic extract; elemental composition; polyphenols; cytotoxicity algae; cellulase; enzymatic extract; elemental composition; polyphenols; cytotoxicity
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Michalak, I.; Dmytryk, A.; Śmieszek, A.; Marycz, K. Chemical Characterization of Enteromorpha prolifera Extract Obtained by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction and Its Influence on the Metabolic Activity of Caco-2. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 479.

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