Next Article in Journal
High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Improves Functional Recovery by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Activating BDNF/TrkB Signaling in Ischemic Rats
Next Article in Special Issue
Simplifying the Preparation of Pollen Grains for MALDI-TOF MS Classification
Previous Article in Journal
Alternative Splicing in Plant Genes: A Means of Regulating the Environmental Fitness of Plants
Previous Article in Special Issue
Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 452; doi:10.3390/ijms18020452

Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations

Chair and Department of Food and Nutrition, Medical University in Lublin, 4a, Chodźki Str., 20-093 Lublin, Poland
Chair and Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plant Unit, Medical University in Lublin, 1, Chodzki str., 20-093 Lublin, Poland
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University in Lublin, 4a, Chodźki Str., 20-093 Lublin, Poland
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Arráez-Román and Ana Maria Gómez Caravaca
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Techniques in Plant and Food Analysis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [442 KB, uploaded 20 February 2017]   |  


The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%); the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg); a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass) and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass) content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb) remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6)-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6)-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar-curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zingiber officinale; elements; terpenes; LC-MS; GC-MS; phenolic compounds Zingiber officinale; elements; terpenes; LC-MS; GC-MS; phenolic compounds

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Koch, W.; Kukula-Koch, W.; Marzec, Z.; Kasperek, E.; Wyszogrodzka-Koma, L.; Szwerc, W.; Asakawa, Y. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 452.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top