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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 452; doi:10.3390/ijms18020452

Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations

1
Chair and Department of Food and Nutrition, Medical University in Lublin, 4a, Chodźki Str., 20-093 Lublin, Poland
2
Chair and Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plant Unit, Medical University in Lublin, 1, Chodzki str., 20-093 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University in Lublin, 4a, Chodźki Str., 20-093 Lublin, Poland
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Arráez-Román and Ana Maria Gómez Caravaca
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Techniques in Plant and Food Analysis)
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Abstract

The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%); the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg); a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass) and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass) content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb) remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6)-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6)-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar-curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zingiber officinale; elements; terpenes; LC-MS; GC-MS; phenolic compounds Zingiber officinale; elements; terpenes; LC-MS; GC-MS; phenolic compounds
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Koch, W.; Kukula-Koch, W.; Marzec, Z.; Kasperek, E.; Wyszogrodzka-Koma, L.; Szwerc, W.; Asakawa, Y. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 452.

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