A Review of Gaucher Disease Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation and Treatments
AbstractGaucher disease (GD, ORPHA355) is a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disorder. It is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, glucocerebrosidase, which leads to an accumulation of its substrate, glucosylceramide, in macrophages. In the general population, its incidence is approximately 1/40,000 to 1/60,000 births, rising to 1/800 in Ashkenazi Jews. The main cause of the cytopenia, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and bone lesions associated with the disease is considered to be the infiltration of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver by Gaucher cells. Type-1 Gaucher disease, which affects the majority of patients (90% in Europe and USA, but less in other regions), is characterized by effects on the viscera, whereas types 2 and 3 are also associated with neurological impairment, either severe in type 2 or variable in type 3. A diagnosis of GD can be confirmed by demonstrating the deficiency of acid glucocerebrosidase activity in leukocytes. Mutations in the GBA1 gene should be identified as they may be of prognostic value in some cases. Patients with type-1 GD—but also carriers of GBA1 mutation—have been found to be predisposed to developing Parkinson’s disease, and the risk of neoplasia associated with the disease is still subject to discussion. Disease-specific treatment consists of intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using one of the currently available molecules (imiglucerase, velaglucerase, or taliglucerase). Orally administered inhibitors of glucosylceramide biosynthesis can also be used (miglustat or eliglustat). View Full-Text
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Stirnemann, J.; Belmatoug, N.; Camou, F.; Serratrice, C.; Froissart, R.; Caillaud, C.; Levade, T.; Astudillo, L.; Serratrice, J.; Brassier, A.; Rose, C.; Billette de Villemeur, T.; Berger, M.G. A Review of Gaucher Disease Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation and Treatments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 441.
Stirnemann J, Belmatoug N, Camou F, Serratrice C, Froissart R, Caillaud C, Levade T, Astudillo L, Serratrice J, Brassier A, Rose C, Billette de Villemeur T, Berger MG. A Review of Gaucher Disease Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation and Treatments. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(2):441.Chicago/Turabian Style
Stirnemann, Jérôme; Belmatoug, Nadia; Camou, Fabrice; Serratrice, Christine; Froissart, Roseline; Caillaud, Catherine; Levade, Thierry; Astudillo, Leonardo; Serratrice, Jacques; Brassier, Anaïs; Rose, Christian; Billette de Villemeur, Thierry; Berger, Marc G. 2017. "A Review of Gaucher Disease Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation and Treatments." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 2: 441.
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