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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 414; doi:10.3390/ijms18020414

Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Activity of Proteus mirabilis Clinically Isolated Strains

1
Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, via Costantinopoli 16, 80100 Naples, Italy
2
Institute for Experimental Endocrinology and Oncology “G.Salvatore”, National Research Council (CNR), via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples “Federico II”, via D. Montesano 47, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick C. Y. Woo
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1843 KB, uploaded 15 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) are the principal hospital-acquired infections. Proteus mirabilis is characterized by several virulence factors able to promote adhesion and biofilm formation and ameliorate the colonization of urinary tract and the formation of crystalline biofilms on the abiotic surface of the urinary catheters. Since, to date, the role of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of different types of urinary tract infections is not well established, in this study we sought to characterize two different clinically isolated strains of P. mirabilis (PM1 and PM2) with distinctive phenotypes and analyzed various virulence factors possibly implicated in the ability to induce UTIs and CAUTIs. In particular, we analyzed motility, biofilm formation both on abiotic and biotic surfaces of PM1 and PM2 and paralleled these parameters with the ability to induce an inflammatory response in an epithelial cell model. Results showed that PM1 displayed major motility and a capacity to form biofilm and was associated with an anti-inflammatory response of host cells. Conversely, PM2 exhibited lack motility and a had slower organization in biofilm but promoted an increase of proinflammatory cytokine expression in infected epithelial cells. Our study provides data useful to start uncovering the pathologic basis of P. mirabilis-associated urinary infections. The evidence of different virulence factors expressed by PM1 and PM2 highlights the possibility to use precise and personalized therapies targeting specific virulence pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: UTI; Proteus mirabilis; biofilm UTI; Proteus mirabilis; biofilm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fusco, A.; Coretti, L.; Savio, V.; Buommino, E.; Lembo, F.; Donnarumma, G. Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Activity of Proteus mirabilis Clinically Isolated Strains. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 414.

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