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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 405; doi:10.3390/ijms18020405

Tumor Microenvironment, a Paradigm in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Therapy

1
Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 63461, Iran
2
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, Florence 50134, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Li Yang
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment and Metabolism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2936 KB, uploaded 14 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Different etiological factors such as hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol and diabetes cause liver injury followed by inflammation, necrosis and hepatocytes proliferation. Continuous cycles of this destructive–regenerative process culminates in liver cirrhosis which is characterized by regenerating nodules that progress to dysplastic nodules and ultimately HCC. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms, and there are only limited therapeutic options. Therefore, the study of the involved molecular mechanisms can open a new insight to define more effective treatment strategies. A variety of alterations have been reported in HCC patients, particularly the cancer-associated microenvironment components including immune cells, fibroblast cells, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix can support the neoplastic cells to proliferate, growth and invade. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and highlights the principal challenges that are relevant to controlling this milieu. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer therapy; hepatocellular carcinoma; tumor microenvironment; immune cells; fibroblast cells; endothelial cells; extracellular matrix cancer therapy; hepatocellular carcinoma; tumor microenvironment; immune cells; fibroblast cells; endothelial cells; extracellular matrix
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tahmasebi Birgani, M.; Carloni, V. Tumor Microenvironment, a Paradigm in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 405.

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