Tumor Microenvironment, a Paradigm in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Therapy
AbstractHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Different etiological factors such as hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol and diabetes cause liver injury followed by inflammation, necrosis and hepatocytes proliferation. Continuous cycles of this destructive–regenerative process culminates in liver cirrhosis which is characterized by regenerating nodules that progress to dysplastic nodules and ultimately HCC. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms, and there are only limited therapeutic options. Therefore, the study of the involved molecular mechanisms can open a new insight to define more effective treatment strategies. A variety of alterations have been reported in HCC patients, particularly the cancer-associated microenvironment components including immune cells, fibroblast cells, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix can support the neoplastic cells to proliferate, growth and invade. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and highlights the principal challenges that are relevant to controlling this milieu. View Full-Text
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Tahmasebi Birgani, M.; Carloni, V. Tumor Microenvironment, a Paradigm in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 405.
Tahmasebi Birgani M, Carloni V. Tumor Microenvironment, a Paradigm in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(2):405.Chicago/Turabian Style
Tahmasebi Birgani, Maryam; Carloni, Vinicio. 2017. "Tumor Microenvironment, a Paradigm in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Therapy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 2: 405.
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