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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 376; doi:10.3390/ijms18020376

Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, c/Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Research and Development of Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), PTS Granada, Avda. Del Conocimiento s/n., Edificio BioRegion, 18016 Granada, Spain
3
Centre de Recerca Biomèdica, Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/Sant Joan s/n, 43201 Reus, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Miguel Herrero, Carolina Simó and Virginia Garcia-Cañas
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Foodomics Approaches in Food Science)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1208 KB, uploaded 14 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin–Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitis vinifera seed; byproduct; Theobroma cacao; HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS; polyphenols; proanthocyandins; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity Vitis vinifera seed; byproduct; Theobroma cacao; HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS; polyphenols; proanthocyandins; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cádiz-Gurrea, M.D.L.L.; Borrás-Linares, I.; Lozano-Sánchez, J.; Joven, J.; Fernández-Arroyo, S.; Segura-Carretero, A. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 376.

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