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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 374; doi:10.3390/ijms18020374

Effects of the Activin A–Follistatin System on Myocardial Cell Apoptosis through the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in Heart Failure

1
Department of Cardiology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130031, China
2
Department of Anesthesiology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130031, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: H.W.M. Niessen and Paul A.J. Krijnen
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement of Cardiac Function in Heart Failure 2017)
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Abstract

Background: A previous study suggested that activin A inhibited myocardial cell apoptosis. This study thus aimed to explore the effects of the activin A–follistatin system on myocardial cell apoptosis in heart failure (HF) rats in order to determine whether or not the mechanism operates through the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway. Methods: Myocardial infarction (MI) by vascular deprivation was used to induce HF. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect activin A, follistatin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) contents in serum. Immunohistochemical staining for activin A, follistatin, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-3 was performed on the myocardial tissue. The activin A-stimulated apoptosis of H9c2 cells was tested by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of activin A, follistatin and ERS-related proteins. Results: It was found that the high expression of activin A could cause activin A–follistatin system imbalance, inducing myocardial cell apoptosis via ERS in vivo. When HF developed to a certain stage, the expression of follistatin was upregulated to antagonize the expression of activin A. Activin A inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis with a low concentration and promoted apoptosis with a high concentration in vitro, also via ERS. Conclusion: Activin A–follistatin system participated in ERS-mediated myocardial cell apoptosis in HF. View Full-Text
Keywords: activin A; apoptosis; endoplasmic reticulum stress; follistatin; heart failure activin A; apoptosis; endoplasmic reticulum stress; follistatin; heart failure
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Liu, M.; Mao, C.; Li, J.; Han, F.; Yang, P. Effects of the Activin A–Follistatin System on Myocardial Cell Apoptosis through the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in Heart Failure. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 374.

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