Next Article in Journal
Evidence of a DHA Signature in the Lipidome and Metabolome of Human Hepatocytes
Next Article in Special Issue
Calcium Signaling in Interstitial Cells: Focus on Telocytes
Previous Article in Journal
Micro-Computed Tomography Detection of Gold Nanoparticle-Labelled Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Rat Subretinal Layer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Down-Regulation of Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel KCa1.1 in Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-453 Cells Treated with Vitamin D Receptor Agonists
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 358; doi:10.3390/ijms18020358

Astrocytic Pathological Calcium Homeostasis and Impaired Vesicle Trafficking in Neurodegeneration

1,2,* , 1,2,3,4,* and 1,2,*
1
Laboratory of Cell Engineering, Celica BIOMEDICAL, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology & Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
4
Achucarro Center for Neuroscience, IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: ChulHee Kang
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Regulation and Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [718 KB, uploaded 15 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Although the central nervous system (CNS) consists of highly heterogeneous populations of neurones and glial cells, clustered into diverse anatomical regions with specific functions, there are some conditions, including alertness, awareness and attention that require simultaneous, coordinated and spatially homogeneous activity within a large area of the brain. During such events, the brain, representing only about two percent of body mass, but consuming one fifth of body glucose at rest, needs additional energy to be produced. How simultaneous energy procurement in a relatively extended area of the brain takes place is poorly understood. This mechanism is likely to be impaired in neurodegeneration, for example in Alzheimer’s disease, the hallmark of which is brain hypometabolism. Astrocytes, the main neural cell type producing and storing glycogen, a form of energy in the brain, also hold the key to metabolic and homeostatic support in the central nervous system and are impaired in neurodegeneration, contributing to the slow decline of excitation-energy coupling in the brain. Many mechanisms are affected, including cell-to-cell signalling. An important question is how changes in cellular signalling, a process taking place in a rather short time domain, contribute to the neurodegeneration that develops over decades. In this review we focus initially on the slow dynamics of Alzheimer’s disease, and on the activity of locus coeruleus, a brainstem nucleus involved in arousal. Subsequently, we overview much faster processes of vesicle traffic and cytosolic calcium dynamics, both of which shape the signalling landscape of astrocyte-neurone communication in health and neurodegeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrocyte; glia; vesicle traffic; calcium homeostasis; cAMP; neurodegeneration; locus coeruleus; noradrenaline; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegeneration; Parkinson’s disease; excitation-energy coupling astrocyte; glia; vesicle traffic; calcium homeostasis; cAMP; neurodegeneration; locus coeruleus; noradrenaline; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegeneration; Parkinson’s disease; excitation-energy coupling
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vardjan, N.; Verkhratsky, A.; Zorec, R. Astrocytic Pathological Calcium Homeostasis and Impaired Vesicle Trafficking in Neurodegeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 358.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top