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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 329; doi:10.3390/ijms18020329

The Dynamics of the Defense Strategy of Pea Induced by Exogenous Nitric Oxide in Response to Aphid Infestation

1
Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
2
Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań, Poland
3
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, 61-704 Poznań, Poland
4
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Dojazd 11, 60-632 Poznań, Poland
5
Department of Botany and Ecology, University of Zielona Góra, Prof. Z. Szafrana 1, 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland
6
Department of Entomology and Environmental Protection, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Dąbrowskiego 159, 60-594 Poznań, Poland
Present Address: Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Vinh University, 182 Le Duan, Vinh, Vietnam.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Massimo Maffei and Francesca Barbero
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 5 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Insect Interactions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2848 KB, uploaded 15 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO), i.e., S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on the metabolic status of Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski leaves infested by Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, population demographic parameters and A. pisum feeding activity. A reduction in the level of semiquinone radicals in pea seedling leaves pretreated with exogenous NO occurred 24 h after A. pisum infestation, which was earlier than in non-pretreated leaves. A decrease in the level of O2•− was observed in leaves pretreated with GSNO and infested by aphids at 48 and 72 h post-infestation (hpi). Directly after the pretreatment with GSNO, an increase in the level of metal ions was recorded. NO considerably induced the relative mRNA levels for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in 24-h leaves pretreated with NO donors, both non-infested and infested. NO stimulated the accumulation of pisatin in leaves until 24 h. The Electrical Penetration Graph revealed a reduction in the feeding activity of the pea aphid on leaves pretreated with NO. The present study showed that foliar application of NO donors induced sequentially defense reactions of pea against A. pisum and had a deterrent effect on aphid feeding and limited the population growth rate. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitric oxide; edible pea; pea aphid; pisatin; flavonoids; semiquinone radicals; electrical penetration graph; population demographic parameters nitric oxide; edible pea; pea aphid; pisatin; flavonoids; semiquinone radicals; electrical penetration graph; population demographic parameters
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Woźniak, A.; Formela, M.; Bilman, P.; Grześkiewicz, K.; Bednarski, W.; Marczak, Ł.; Narożna, D.; Dancewicz, K.; Mai, V.C.; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, B.; Floryszak-Wieczorek, J.; Gabryś, B.; Morkunas, I. The Dynamics of the Defense Strategy of Pea Induced by Exogenous Nitric Oxide in Response to Aphid Infestation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 329.

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