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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122755

Metabolic Pathways of the Warburg Effect in Health and Disease: Perspectives of Choice, Chain or Chance

1
Advanced Polymer Materials Group, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Gh Polizu 1-7, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
2
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children & Adults, University Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41121 Modena, Italy
3
“Victor Babes”, National Institute of Pathology, 050096 Bucharest, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Space Biology: An Organ-Based Approach)
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Abstract

Focus on the Warburg effect, initially descriptive of increased glycolysis in cancer cells, has served to illuminate mitochondrial function in many other pathologies. This review explores our current understanding of the Warburg effect’s role in cancer, diabetes and ageing. We highlight how it can be regulated through a chain of oncogenic events, as a chosen response to impaired glucose metabolism or by chance acquisition of genetic changes associated with ageing. Such chain, choice or chance perspectives can be extended to help understand neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease, providing clues with scope for therapeutic intervention. It is anticipated that exploration of Warburg effect pathways in extreme conditions, such as deep space, will provide further insights crucial for comprehending complex metabolic diseases, a frontier for medicine that remains equally significant for humanity in space and on earth. View Full-Text
Keywords: Warburg effect; mitochondria; radiation; metabolism; neurodegenerative diseases; space biology Warburg effect; mitochondria; radiation; metabolism; neurodegenerative diseases; space biology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Burns, J.S.; Manda, G. Metabolic Pathways of the Warburg Effect in Health and Disease: Perspectives of Choice, Chain or Chance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2755.

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