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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2735; doi:10.3390/ijms18122735

The Lung Microbiome in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Promising Approach for Targeted Therapies

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, FARAH, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2
Respiratory department, CHU Liège. Domaine universitaire du Sart Tilman, B35, 4000 Liège, Belgium
3
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, GIGA Research, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Diseases: Chronic Respiratory Infections)
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Abstract

This review focuses on the role of the lung microbiome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs both in healthy and pathological conditions. Studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggest that increased bacterial burden and/or abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria may drive disease progression, acute exacerbations, and mortality. More recent work has highlighted the interaction between the lung microbiome and the innate immune system in IPF, strengthening the argument for the role of both host and environment interaction in disease pathogenesis. Existing published data suggesting that the lung microbiome may represent a therapeutic target, via antibiotic administration, immunization against pathogenic organisms, or treatment directed at gastroesophageal reflux. Taken altogether, published literature suggests that the lung microbiome might serve in the future as a prognostic biomarker, a therapeutic target, and/or provide an explanation for disease pathogenesis in IPF. View Full-Text
Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; IPF; interstitial lung diseases; microbiome; microbiota idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; IPF; interstitial lung diseases; microbiome; microbiota
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fastrès, A.; Felice, F.; Roels, E.; Moermans, C.; Corhay, J.-L.; Bureau, F.; Louis, R.; Clercx, C.; Guiot, J. The Lung Microbiome in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Promising Approach for Targeted Therapies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2735.

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