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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010142

Fungi in Bronchiectasis: A Concise Review

1
Servicio de Neumología, Unidad de Bronquiectasias y Fibrosis Quística, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
2
Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS), 28034 Madrid, Spain
3
Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico la Fe, 46016 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 31 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Diseases: Chronic Respiratory Infections)
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Abstract

Although the spectrum of fungal pathology has been studied extensively in immunosuppressed patients, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and management of fungal infections in chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchiectasis. In bronchiectasis patients, deteriorated mucociliary clearance—generally due to prior colonization by bacterial pathogens—and thick mucosity propitiate, the persistence of fungal spores in the respiratory tract. The most prevalent fungi in these patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus; these are almost always isolated with bacterial pathogens like Haemophillus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, making very difficult to define their clinical significance. Analysis of the mycobiome enables us to detect a greater diversity of microorganisms than with conventional cultures. The results have shown a reduced fungal diversity in most chronic respiratory diseases, and that this finding correlates with poorer lung function. Increased knowledge of both the mycobiome and the complex interactions between the fungal, viral, and bacterial microbiota, including mycobacteria, will further our understanding of the mycobiome’s relationship with the pathogeny of bronchiectasis and the development of innovative therapies to combat it. View Full-Text
Keywords: bronchiectasis; fungi; yeast; filamentous fungi; Candida albicans; Aspergillus; allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; mycobiome bronchiectasis; fungi; yeast; filamentous fungi; Candida albicans; Aspergillus; allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; mycobiome
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Máiz, L.; Nieto, R.; Cantón, R.; Gómez G. de la Pedrosa, E.; Martinez-García, M.Á. Fungi in Bronchiectasis: A Concise Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 142.

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