Major Challenges and Potential Microenvironment-Targeted Therapies in Glioblastoma
AbstractGlioblastoma (GBM) is considered one of the most malignant, genetically heterogeneous, and therapy-resistant solid tumor. Therapeutic options are limited in GBM and involve surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Adjuvant therapies, including antiangiogenic treatments (AATs) targeting the VEGF–VEGFR pathway, have witnessed enhanced infiltration of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells, causing therapy resistance and tumor relapse in clinics and in preclinical models of GBM. This review article is focused on gathering previous clinical and preclinical reports featuring major challenges and lessons in GBM. Potential combination therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment (TME) to overcome the myeloid cell-mediated resistance problem in GBM are discussed. Future directions are focused on the use of TME-directed therapies in combination with standard therapy in clinical trials, and the exploration of novel therapies and GBM models for preclinical studies. We believe this review will guide the future of GBM research and therapy. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Arbab, A.S.; Rashid, M.H.; Angara, K.; Borin, T.F.; Lin, P.-C.; Jain, M.; Achyut, B.R. Major Challenges and Potential Microenvironment-Targeted Therapies in Glioblastoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2732.
Arbab AS, Rashid MH, Angara K, Borin TF, Lin P-C, Jain M, Achyut BR. Major Challenges and Potential Microenvironment-Targeted Therapies in Glioblastoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(12):2732.Chicago/Turabian Style
Arbab, Ali S.; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Angara, Kartik; Borin, Thaiz F.; Lin, Ping-Chang; Jain, Meenu; Achyut, Bhagelu R. 2017. "Major Challenges and Potential Microenvironment-Targeted Therapies in Glioblastoma." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 12: 2732.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.