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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2652; doi:10.3390/ijms18122652

Joint Effects of PON1 Polymorphisms and Vegetable Intake on Ischemic Stroke: A Family-Based Case Control Study

1
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
2
Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
5
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

Paraoxonase 1 gene (PON1) polymorphisms and dietary vegetable and fruit intake are both established determinants of ischemic stroke (IS). However, little is known about whether these factors jointly influence the risk of IS. We analyzed the main effects of PON1, as well as the interactions between PON1 and dietary vegetable or fruit intake with the risk of total IS and its subtypes in a family-based case-control study conducted among 2158 Chinese participants (1007 IS cases and 1151 IS-free controls) from 918 families. Conditional logistic regression models, with each family as a stratum, were used to examine the association between rs662 and IS. Gene-diet interactions were tested by including a cross-product term of dietary vegetable or fruit intake by rs662_G allele count in the models. Each copy of the PON1 rs662_G allele was associated with 28% higher risk of total IS (p = 0.008) and 32% higher risk of large artery atherosclerosis subtype (LAA) (p = 0.01). We observed an interaction between rs662 and vegetable intake for both total IS (p = 0.006) and LAA (p = 0.02) after adjustment for covariates. Individuals who carry the rs662_A allele may benefit to a greater extent from intake of vegetables and thus be more effectively protected from ischemic stroke, whereas carriers of the G allele may still remain at greater risk for ischemic stroke due to their genetic backgrounds even when they consume a high level of vegetables. More studies are needed to replicate our findings among other populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: gene-diet interaction; PON1; vegetable intake; ischemic stroke; ischemic stroke subtypes; family-based case-control study gene-diet interaction; PON1; vegetable intake; ischemic stroke; ischemic stroke subtypes; family-based case-control study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Juan, J.; Jiang, X.; Tang, X.; Wu, Y.; Sun, K.; Xiang, X.; Tian, Y.; Wu, T.; Sun, Q.; Kraft, P.; Hu, Y. Joint Effects of PON1 Polymorphisms and Vegetable Intake on Ischemic Stroke: A Family-Based Case Control Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2652.

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