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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122507

Effects of Commonly Used Pesticides in China on the Mitochondria and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Parkinson’s Disease

1
State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China
2
Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
3
The Institute of Brain Research, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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Abstract

Evidence continues to accumulate that pesticides are the leading candidates of environmental toxins that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. The mechanisms, however, remain largely unclear. According to epidemiological studies, we selected nine representative pesticides (paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, endosulfan, fenpyroximate, tebufenpyrad, trichlorphon and carbaryl) which are commonly used in China and detected the effects of the pesticides on mitochondria and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) function. Our results reveal that all the nine studied pesticides induce morphological changes of mitochondria at low concentrations. Paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, endosulfan, fenpyroximate and tebufenpyrad induced mitochondria fragmentation. Furthermore, some of them (paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, fenpyroximate and tebufenpyrad) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease of intracellular ATP. Interestingly, these pesticides which induce mitochondria dysfunction also inhibit 26S and 20S proteasome activity. However, two out of the nine pesticides, namely trichlorphon and carbaryl, were found not to cause mitochondrial fragmentation or functional damage, nor inhibit the activity of the proteasome, which provides significant guidance for selection of pesticides in China. Moreover, our results demonstrate a potential link between inhibition of mitochondria and the UPS, and pesticide-induced Parkinsonism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; pesticides; mitochondria; ubiquitin-Proteasome system; China Parkinson’s disease; pesticides; mitochondria; ubiquitin-Proteasome system; China
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, T.; Tan, J.; Wan, Z.; Zou, Y.; Kessete Afewerky, H.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, T. Effects of Commonly Used Pesticides in China on the Mitochondria and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Parkinson’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2507.

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