Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs
AbstractNitroxides are stable free radicals that contain a nitroxyl group with an unpaired electron. In this paper, we present the properties and application of nitroxides as antioxidants and anticancer drugs. The mostly used nitroxides in biology and medicine are a group of heterocyclic nitroxide derivatives of piperidine, pyrroline and pyrrolidine. The antioxidant action of nitroxides is associated with their redox cycle. Nitroxides, unlike other antioxidants, are characterized by a catalytic mechanism of action associated with a single electron oxidation and reduction reaction. In biological conditions, they mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD), modulate hemoprotein’s catalase-like activity, scavenge reactive free radicals, inhibit the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions and suppress the oxidation of biological materials (peptides, proteins, lipids, etc.). The use of nitroxides as antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by anticancer drugs has also been investigated. The application of nitroxides and their derivatives as anticancer drugs is discussed in the contexts of breast, hepatic, lung, ovarian, lymphatic and thyroid cancers under in vivo and in vitro experiments. In this article, we focus on new natural spin-labelled derivatives such as camptothecin, rotenone, combretastatin, podophyllotoxin and others. The applications of nitroxides in the aging process, cardiovascular disease and pathological conditions were also discussed. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Lewandowski, M.; Gwozdzinski, K. Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2490.
Lewandowski M, Gwozdzinski K. Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(11):2490.Chicago/Turabian Style
Lewandowski, Marcin; Gwozdzinski, Krzysztof. 2017. "Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 11: 2490.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.