Next Article in Journal
Metabolic Epilepsies—Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Uwe Heinemann
Next Article in Special Issue
Differential Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms nNOS and iNOS in Patients with Non-Segmental Generalized Vitiligo
Previous Article in Journal
Identification and Initial Characterization of the Effectors of an Anther Smut Fungus and Potential Host Target Proteins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Modulation of the Senescence-Associated Inflammatory Phenotype in Human Fibroblasts by Olive Phenols
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112490

Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs

Department of Molecular Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, 90-136 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2184 KB, uploaded 22 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Nitroxides are stable free radicals that contain a nitroxyl group with an unpaired electron. In this paper, we present the properties and application of nitroxides as antioxidants and anticancer drugs. The mostly used nitroxides in biology and medicine are a group of heterocyclic nitroxide derivatives of piperidine, pyrroline and pyrrolidine. The antioxidant action of nitroxides is associated with their redox cycle. Nitroxides, unlike other antioxidants, are characterized by a catalytic mechanism of action associated with a single electron oxidation and reduction reaction. In biological conditions, they mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD), modulate hemoprotein’s catalase-like activity, scavenge reactive free radicals, inhibit the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions and suppress the oxidation of biological materials (peptides, proteins, lipids, etc.). The use of nitroxides as antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by anticancer drugs has also been investigated. The application of nitroxides and their derivatives as anticancer drugs is discussed in the contexts of breast, hepatic, lung, ovarian, lymphatic and thyroid cancers under in vivo and in vitro experiments. In this article, we focus on new natural spin-labelled derivatives such as camptothecin, rotenone, combretastatin, podophyllotoxin and others. The applications of nitroxides in the aging process, cardiovascular disease and pathological conditions were also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitroxide; antioxidant properties; nitroxide as drugs; spin labelled drug analogues; oxidative stress nitroxide; antioxidant properties; nitroxide as drugs; spin labelled drug analogues; oxidative stress
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lewandowski, M.; Gwozdzinski, K. Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2490.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top