Next Article in Journal
Dopaminergic Dysfunction in Mammalian Dopamine Neurons Induced by Simazine Neurotoxicity
Previous Article in Journal
Structure and Functional Analysis of Promoters from Two Liver Isoforms of CPT I in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112409

Lactobacillus plantarum Enhanced IL-22 Production in Natural Killer (NK) Cells That Protect the Integrity of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Barrier Damaged by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

1,2,3,4,5,†
,
1,2,3,4,5,†
,
1,2,3,4,5
,
1,2,3,4,5
,
1,2,3,4,5
and
1,2,3,4,5,*
1
Institute of Animal Science, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding, Guangzhou 510640, China
3
Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South China, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510640, China
4
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Nutrition, Guangzhou 510640, China
5
Guangdong Public Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Nutrition, Guangzhou 510640, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6904 KB, uploaded 14 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Interleukin (IL)-22-producing Natural Killer (NK) cells protect the gut epithelial cell barrier from pathogens. A strain of probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum, LP), was previously found by our laboratory to significantly improve the mucosal barrier integrity and function of the small intestine in pigs. However, it was unclear whether LP benefited the intestinal mucosal barrier via interactions with the intestinal NK cells. The present study, therefore, was focused on the therapeutic effect of NK cells that were stimulated by LP on attenuating enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced the damage to the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier. The results showed that LP can efficiently increase protein levels of the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) family, and the expression levels of IL-22 mRNA and protein in NK cells. Transfer of NK cells stimulated by LP conferred protection against ETEC K88-induced intestinal epithelial barrier damage in NCM460 cells. We found that NK cells stimulated by LP could partially offset the reduction in NCM460 cell monolayers transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) caused by ETEC K88, and increase ZO-1 and occludin mRNA and protein expressions by ETEC K88-infected NCM460 cells. Furthermore, adding NK cells that were stimulated by LP to ETEC K88-infected NCM460cells, IL-22R1, p-Stat3, and p-Tyk2 expression by NCM460 cells was increased. Mechanistic experiment showed that NK cells stimulated by LP lost the function of maintaining TEER of NCM460 cells challenged with ETEC K88, when polyclonal anti-IL-22 antibody was used to block IL-22 production. Collectively, our results suggested that LP stimulation of NK could enhance IL-22 production, which might be able to provide defense against ETEC-induced damage to the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum; Escherichia coli K88; NK cells; NCM460 cells; intestinal epithelial barrier; integrity; IL-22 Lactobacillus plantarum; Escherichia coli K88; NK cells; NCM460 cells; intestinal epithelial barrier; integrity; IL-22
Figures

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Qiu, Y.; Jiang, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, L.; Ma, X.; Yang, X. Lactobacillus plantarum Enhanced IL-22 Production in Natural Killer (NK) Cells That Protect the Integrity of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Barrier Damaged by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2409.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top