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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 216; doi:10.3390/ijms18010216

α-Tocopherol at Nanomolar Concentration Protects Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress

1
Department of Molecular Endocrinology and Neurochemistry, I.M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Thorez avenue, 44, Saint-Petersburg 194223, Russia
2
Preventive Medicine Department, Mechnikov North-West StateMedical University, Saint-Petersburg, Kirochnaya ul. 41, Saint-Petersburg 191015, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 8 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2016)
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Abstract

The aim of the present work is to study the mechanism of the α-tocopherol (α-T) protective action at nanomolar and micromolar concentrations against H2O2-induced brain cortical neuron death. The mechanism of α-T action on neurons at its nanomolar concentrations characteristic for brain extracellular space has not been practically studied yet. Preincubation with nanomolar and micromolar α-T for 18 h was found to increase the viability of cortical neurons exposed to H2O2; α-T effect was concentration-dependent in the nanomolar range. However, preincubation with nanomolar α-T for 30 min was not effective. Nanomolar and micromolar α-T decreased the reactive oxygen species accumulation induced in cortical neurons by the prooxidant. Using immunoblotting it was shown that preincubation with α-T at nanomolar and micromolar concentrations for 18 h prevented Akt inactivation and decreased PKCδ activation induced in cortical neurons by H2O2. α-T prevented the ERK1/2 sustained activation during 24 h caused by H2O2. α-T at nanomolar and micromolar concentrations prevented a great increase of the proapoptotic to antiapoptotic proteins (Bax/Bcl-2) ratio, elicited by neuron exposure to H2O2. The similar neuron protection mechanism by nanomolar and micromolar α-T suggests that a “more is better” approach to patients’ supplementation with vitamin E or α-T is not reasonable. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain cortical neurons; H2O2; α-tocopherol; nanomolar and micromolar concentrations; viability; reactive oxygen species; ERK1/2; Akt; protein kinase Cδ; Bax/Bcl-2 ratio brain cortical neurons; H2O2; α-tocopherol; nanomolar and micromolar concentrations; viability; reactive oxygen species; ERK1/2; Akt; protein kinase Cδ; Bax/Bcl-2 ratio
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zakharova, I.O.; Sokolova, T.V.; Vlasova, Y.A.; Bayunova, L.V.; Rychkova, M.P.; Avrova, N.F. α-Tocopherol at Nanomolar Concentration Protects Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 216.

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