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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 211; doi:10.3390/ijms18010211

Mechanism Governing Human Kappa-Opioid Receptor Expression under Desferrioxamine-Induced Hypoxic Mimic Condition in Neuronal NMB Cells

Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ 07079, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Academic Editors: Michele Samaja and Giuseppina Milano
Received: 26 November 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation to Chronic Hypoxia: The Last Word Has Not yet Been Said)
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Abstract

Cellular adaptation to hypoxia is a protective mechanism for neurons and relevant to cancer. Treatment with desferrioxamine (DFO) to induce hypoxia reduced the viability of human neuronal NMB cells. Surviving/attached cells exhibited profound increases of expression of the human kappa-opioid receptor (hKOR) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The functional relationship between hKOR and HIF-1α was investigated using RT-PCR, Western blot, luciferase reporter, mutagenesis, siRNA and receptor-ligand binding assays. In surviving neurons, DFO increased HIF-1α expression and its amount in the nucleus. DFO also dramatically increased hKOR expression. Two (designated as HIFC and D) out of four potential HIF response elements of the hKOR gene (HIFA–D) synergistically mediated the DFO response. Mutation of both elements completely abolished the DFO-induced effect. The CD11 plasmid (containing HIFC and D with an 11 bp spacing) produced greater augmentation than that of the CD17 plasmid (HIFC and D with a 17 bp-spacing), suggesting that a proper topological interaction of these elements synergistically enhanced the promoter activity. HIF-1α siRNA knocked down the increase of endogenous HIF-1α messages and diminished the DFO-induced increase of hKOR expression. Increased hKOR expression resulted in the up-regulation of hKOR protein. In conclusion, the adaptation of neuronal hKOR under hypoxia was governed by HIF-1, revealing a new mechanism of hKOR regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: desferrioxamine; hypoxia; hypoxia inducible factor-1α; human kappa-opioid receptor; HIF response elements; human NMB neuronal cells desferrioxamine; hypoxia; hypoxia inducible factor-1α; human kappa-opioid receptor; HIF response elements; human NMB neuronal cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Babcock, J.; Herrera, A.; Coricor, G.; Karch, C.; Liu, A.H.; Rivera-Gines, A.; Ko, J.L. Mechanism Governing Human Kappa-Opioid Receptor Expression under Desferrioxamine-Induced Hypoxic Mimic Condition in Neuronal NMB Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 211.

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