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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 13; doi:10.3390/ijms18010013

Effect of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) Extract Supplementation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

1
Organic Chemistry, Natural Products and Food Stuffs Research Unit, QOPNA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Aveiro Institute of Materials, CICECO, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Human Nutrition and Hygiene, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
4
Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
5
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, CESAM, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
6
Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 35, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maurizio Battino and Francesca Giampieri
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
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Abstract

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) lipophilic and polar extract dietary supplementation effects were evaluated according to diabetes management indices, using an in vivo model. A research pipeline was constructed, that ranged from extract preparation, partial chemical characterization and toxicity evaluation, to examining the elderberry extract dietary supplementation effects on biofluid and tissues. Extracts toxicity was screened using an Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence model. A concentration of up to 60 mg/L was selected, and rat doses for oral supplementation were computed applying the interspecies correlation between A. fischeri and rats. Wistar type 2 diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ), were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented for 4 weeks at doses of 190 and 350 mg/kg body weight/day of lipophilic and polar extract, respectively. As far as we know, lipophilic elderberry extract supplementation was assessed for the first time, while polar extract was administrated at higher doses and for a shorter period compared to previous studies, aiming to evaluate subacute supplementation effects. The polar extract modulated glucose metabolism by correcting hyperglycemia, while the lipophilic extract lowered insulin secretion. Both extracts lowered insulin resistance, without remarkable alterations to hematological indices, sera lipids and sera and tissular trace element homeostasis. In conclusion, elderberries are a potential source of bioactive compounds for formulations to be used as co-adjuvants in diabetes management. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic rats; elderberry extracts supplementation; high-fat diet; lipophilic extract; polar extract; Sambucus nigra L. diabetic rats; elderberry extracts supplementation; high-fat diet; lipophilic extract; polar extract; Sambucus nigra L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salvador, Â.C.; Król, E.; Lemos, V.C.; Santos, S.A.O.; Bento, F.P.M.S.; Costa, C.P.; Almeida, A.; Szczepankiewicz, D.; Kulczyński, B.; Krejpcio, Z.; Silvestre, A.J.D.; Rocha, S.M. Effect of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) Extract Supplementation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 13.

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