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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1541; doi:10.3390/ijms17091541

Biodiversity, Phylogeny, and Antifungal Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum

1
Department of Forest Protection, College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2
Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Landscape Architecture and Arts, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marcello Iriti and Jianhua Zhu
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
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Abstract

This study investigated the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. A total of 940 isolates obtained were grouped into 93 morphotypes, 43 species, and 23 genera, which were authenticated by molecular identification based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. A high diversity of endophytic fungi from Z. bungeanum are observed with high species richness S (43), Margalef index D′ (6.1351), Shannon–Wiener index H′ (3.2743), Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9476), PIE index (0.9486), and evenness Pielou index J (0.8705) but a low dominant index λ (0.0524). Significant tissue specificity of the endophytic fungi was observed in Z. bungeanum, and the highest species richness and diversity indexes were obtained in the stem. Phylogenetic analyses of the 93 endophytic isolates were carried out by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method to demonstrate their evolutionary processes. Antifungal activities of endophytic fungi were assayed and eight endophytic isolates showed strong and long-lasting inhibition against host pathogenic fungi Fusarium sambucinum and Pseudocercospora zanthoxyli. Here, for the first time, we systematically demonstrate the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi associated with Z. bungeanum and reveal the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant to obtain the greatest endophyte species diversity, which might offer a framework for further investigation and utilization of endophytic fungi as aunique source of interesting and useful bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zanthoxylum bungeanum; endophytic fungi; fungal diversity; phylogeny; antifungal activity Zanthoxylum bungeanum; endophytic fungi; fungal diversity; phylogeny; antifungal activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, P.; Wu, Z.; Liu, T.; Wang, Y. Biodiversity, Phylogeny, and Antifungal Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1541.

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