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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1498; doi:10.3390/ijms17091498

Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel Therapies for Treating Diabetic Retinopathy

Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, and Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
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Academic Editor: Lu Cai
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 7 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults, and is projected to be a significant future health concern due to the rising incidence of diabetes. The recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies has revolutionized the treatment of diabetic retinopathy but a significant subset of patients fail to respond to treatment. Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines other than VEGF may contribute to the disease process. The current review examines the presence of non-VEGF cytokines in the eyes of patients with diabetic retinopathy and highlights mechanistic pathways in relevant animal models. Finally, novel drug targets including components of the kinin–kallikrein system and emerging treatments such as anti-HPTP (human protein tyrosine phosphatase) β antibodies are discussed. Recognition of non-VEGF contributions to disease pathogenesis may lead to novel therapeutics to enhance existing treatments for patients who do not respond to anti-VEGF therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; diabetic macular edema; cytokine; VEGF; TNF-α; blood retinal barrier; corticosteroid; renin-angiotensin system; kinin-kallikrein system; angiopoietin; vitreomacular adhesion diabetic retinopathy; diabetic macular edema; cytokine; VEGF; TNF-α; blood retinal barrier; corticosteroid; renin-angiotensin system; kinin-kallikrein system; angiopoietin; vitreomacular adhesion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bolinger, M.T.; Antonetti, D.A. Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel Therapies for Treating Diabetic Retinopathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1498.

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