Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel Therapies for Treating Diabetic Retinopathy
AbstractDiabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults, and is projected to be a significant future health concern due to the rising incidence of diabetes. The recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies has revolutionized the treatment of diabetic retinopathy but a significant subset of patients fail to respond to treatment. Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines other than VEGF may contribute to the disease process. The current review examines the presence of non-VEGF cytokines in the eyes of patients with diabetic retinopathy and highlights mechanistic pathways in relevant animal models. Finally, novel drug targets including components of the kinin–kallikrein system and emerging treatments such as anti-HPTP (human protein tyrosine phosphatase) β antibodies are discussed. Recognition of non-VEGF contributions to disease pathogenesis may lead to novel therapeutics to enhance existing treatments for patients who do not respond to anti-VEGF therapies. View Full-Text
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Bolinger, M.T.; Antonetti, D.A. Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel Therapies for Treating Diabetic Retinopathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1498.
Bolinger MT, Antonetti DA. Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel Therapies for Treating Diabetic Retinopathy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(9):1498.Chicago/Turabian Style
Bolinger, Mark T.; Antonetti, David A. 2016. "Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel Therapies for Treating Diabetic Retinopathy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 9: 1498.