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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1468; doi:10.3390/ijms17091468

Melanoma Brain Metastasis: Mechanisms, Models, and Medicine

1
Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
2
Department of Surgery, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
3
Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dario Marchetti
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Metastasis 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1481 KB, uploaded 2 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

The development of brain metastases in patients with advanced stage melanoma is common, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their development are poorly understood. Melanoma brain metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality and confer a poor prognosis; traditional therapies including whole brain radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy, or chemotherapy yield only modest increases in overall survival (OS) for these patients. While recently approved therapies have significantly improved OS in melanoma patients, only a small number of studies have investigated their efficacy in patients with brain metastases. Preliminary data suggest that some responses have been observed in intracranial lesions, which has sparked new clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy in melanoma patients with brain metastases. Simultaneously, recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of melanoma cell dissemination to the brain have revealed novel and potentially therapeutic targets. In this review, we provide an overview of newly discovered mechanisms of melanoma spread to the brain, discuss preclinical models that are being used to further our understanding of this deadly disease and provide an update of the current clinical trials for melanoma patients with brain metastases. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; brain metastases; mechanisms; models; clinical trials melanoma; brain metastases; mechanisms; models; clinical trials
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Kircher, D.A.; Silvis, M.R.; Cho, J.H.; Holmen, S.L. Melanoma Brain Metastasis: Mechanisms, Models, and Medicine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1468.

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