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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1469; doi:10.3390/ijms17091469

Advances in Integrating Traditional and Omic Biomarkers When Analyzing the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Cardiovascular Prevention

Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research (REGICOR Group), Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden
Department of Internal Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, 22241 Lund, Sweden
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Navarra, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
INSERM U1048, Institute of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases (I2MC), Rangueil Hospital, 31442 Toulouse, France
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vicki Flood
Received: 19 June 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known. It is thought that the integration of omics including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, into studies analyzing nutrition and cardiovascular diseases will provide new clues regarding these mechanisms. However, omics integration is still in its infancy. Currently, some single-omics analyses have provided valuable data, mostly in the field of genomics. Thus, several gene-diet interactions in determining both intermediate (plasma lipids, etc.) and final cardiovascular phenotypes (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) have been reported. However, few studies have analyzed changes in gene expression and, moreover very few have focused on epigenomic or metabolomic biomarkers related to the MedDiet. Nevertheless, these preliminary results can help to better understand the inter-individual differences in cardiovascular risk and dietary response for further applications in personalized nutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular; biomarkers; omics; Mediterranean diet; gene-diet interactions cardiovascular; biomarkers; omics; Mediterranean diet; gene-diet interactions

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fitó, M.; Melander, O.; Martínez, J.A.; Toledo, E.; Carpéné, C.; Corella, D. Advances in Integrating Traditional and Omic Biomarkers When Analyzing the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Cardiovascular Prevention. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1469.

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