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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1465; doi:10.3390/ijms17091465

Restoration of Immune Responsiveness to Glioma by Vaccination of Mice with Established Brain Gliomas with a Semi-Allogeneic Vaccine

1
Research Service (151), Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 109 Bee Street, Charleston, SC 29401, USA
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
3
Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony Lemarié
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
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Abstract

Prior studies had shown the clinical efficacy of a semi-allogeneic glioma vaccine in mice with lethal GL261 gliomas. This was confirmed in the present study. As subcutaneous vaccination resulted in protection against tumor in the brain, the present study assessed the impact of this vaccination of mice bearing established GL261 brain gliomas on their cytokine production upon in vitro exposure to tumor-derived products. Mice with established GL261 brain gliomas were vaccinated subcutaneously with H-2b GL261 glioma cells fused with H-2d RAG-neo cells or with a mock vaccine of phosphate-buffered saline. The results of these analyses show that the presence of GL261 tumor-conditioned medium resulted in increased production of Th1, inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines by spleen cells from control mice and from vaccinated glioma-bearing mice. In contrast, spleen cells of tumor-bearing, mock-vaccinated mice produced lower levels of cytokines in the presence of tumor-conditioned media. However, these results also show that there was not a heightened level of cytokine production in the presence of tumor-conditioned medium by spleen cells of vaccinated mice over the production by spleen cells of control mice. Overall, these results show that vaccination slows growth of the GL261 tumors to the point where GL261-vaccinated mice do not show the signs of morbidly or splenic dysfunction exhibited by unvaccinated, late stage glioma-bearing mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; glioblastoma; immune activation; vaccination cytokines; glioblastoma; immune activation; vaccination
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Gattoni-Celli, S.; Young, M.R.I. Restoration of Immune Responsiveness to Glioma by Vaccination of Mice with Established Brain Gliomas with a Semi-Allogeneic Vaccine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1465.

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