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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1461; doi:10.3390/ijms17091461

New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State

1
Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University of Gabriele D’Annunzio, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Medicine and Health Science School, University of Gabriele D’Annunzio, 66100 Chieti, Italy
3
Department of Farmacy, University of Gabriele D’Annunzio, 66100 Chieti, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ge Zhang
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Molecular Medicine & Molecular Drug Discovery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1234 KB, uploaded 1 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H2O2-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrolyzed reduced water; antioxidant enzymes; nitric oxide; superoxide anion electrolyzed reduced water; antioxidant enzymes; nitric oxide; superoxide anion
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Franceschelli, S.; Gatta, D.M.P.; Pesce, M.; Ferrone, A.; Patruno, A.; de Lutiis, M.A.; Grilli, A.; Felaco, M.; Croce, F.; Speranza, L. New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1461.

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