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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1445; doi:10.3390/ijms17091445

Exposure to Zinc Sulfate Results in Differential Effects on Olfactory Sensory Neuron Subtypes in Adult Zebrafish

Department of Biological Sciences, Western Michigan University, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
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Academic Editor: Juliette Legler
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish: A Model for Toxicological Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8518 KB, uploaded 31 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Zinc sulfate is a known olfactory toxicant, although its specific effects on the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish are unknown. Olfactory organs of adult zebrafish were exposed to zinc sulfate and, after 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 or 14 days, fish were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and behavioral analyses. Severe morphological disruption of the olfactory organ was observed two days following zinc sulfate exposure, including fusion of lamellae, epithelial inflammation, and significant loss of anti-calretinin labeling. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the apical surface of the sensory region was absent of ciliated structures, but microvilli were still present. Behavioral analysis showed significant loss of the ability to perceive bile salts and some fish also had no response to amino acids. Over the next several days, olfactory organ morphology, epithelial structure, and anti-calretinin labeling returned to control-like conditions, although the ability to perceive bile salts remained lost until day 14. Thus, exposure to zinc sulfate results in rapid degeneration of the olfactory organ, followed by restoration of morphology and function within two weeks. Zinc sulfate appears to have a greater effect on ciliated olfactory sensory neurons than on microvillous olfactory sensory neurons, suggesting differential effects on sensory neuron subtypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: zebrafish; zinc sulfate; olfactory epithelium; scanning electron microscopy; cilia; microvilli; sensory neurons; amino acids; bile salts; behavior zebrafish; zinc sulfate; olfactory epithelium; scanning electron microscopy; cilia; microvilli; sensory neurons; amino acids; bile salts; behavior
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hentig, J.T.; Byrd-Jacobs, C.A. Exposure to Zinc Sulfate Results in Differential Effects on Olfactory Sensory Neuron Subtypes in Adult Zebrafish. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1445.

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