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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1440; doi:10.3390/ijms17091440

Surface Modified Multifunctional and Stimuli Responsive Nanoparticles for Drug Targeting: Current Status and Uses

1
Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Macedonia, Greece
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, Istanbul Medipol University, Beykoz 34810, Istanbul, Turkey
3
Pharmathen Company, Dervenakion Str. 6, Attiki 15351, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hermann Ehrlich
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Marine Biomaterials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4241 KB, uploaded 31 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Nanocarriers, due to their unique features, are of increased interest among researchers working with pharmaceutical formulations. Polymeric nanoparticles and nanocapsules, involving non-toxic biodegradable polymers, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and inorganic–organic nanomaterials, are among the most used carriers for drugs for a broad spectrum of targeted diseases. In fact, oral, injectable, transdermal-dermal and ocular formulations mainly consist of the aforementioned nanomaterials demonstrating promising characteristics such as long circulation, specific targeting, high drug loading capacity, enhanced intracellular penetration, and so on. Over the last decade, huge advances in the development of novel, safer and less toxic nanocarriers with amended properties have been made. In addition, multifunctional nanocarriers combining chemical substances, vitamins and peptides via coupling chemistry, inorganic particles coated by biocompatible materials seem to play a key role considering that functionalization can enhance characteristics such as biocompatibility, targetability, environmental friendliness, and intracellular penetration while also have limited side effects. This review aims to summarize the “state of the art” of drug delivery carriers in nanosize, paying attention to their surface functionalization with ligands and other small or polymeric compounds so as to upgrade active and passive targeting, different release patterns as well as cell targeting and stimuli responsibility. Lastly, future aspects and potential uses of nanoparticulated drug systems are outlined. View Full-Text
Keywords: multifunctional nanocarriers; surface modification; drug delivery; cell targeting; stimuli responsive; toxicity multifunctional nanocarriers; surface modification; drug delivery; cell targeting; stimuli responsive; toxicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Siafaka, P.I.; Üstündağ Okur, N.; Karavas, E.; Bikiaris, D.N. Surface Modified Multifunctional and Stimuli Responsive Nanoparticles for Drug Targeting: Current Status and Uses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1440.

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