Next Article in Journal
The piggyBac-Based Gene Delivery System Can Confer Successful Production of Cloned Porcine Blastocysts with Multigene Constructs
Previous Article in Journal
Family Growth and Survival Response to Two Simulated Water Temperature Environments in the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1421; doi:10.3390/ijms17091421

Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond

1,2,†,* , 1,†
,
1,†
,
1
,
1
,
1,* and 2,*
1
College of Science, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
2
Key Laboratory of Environment and Ecology in Western China of Ministry of Education, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 29 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1073 KB, uploaded 29 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide. View Full-Text
Keywords: bitter almond; essential oil; GC-MS; chemical composition; antifungal activity bitter almond; essential oil; GC-MS; chemical composition; antifungal activity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Geng, H.; Yu, X.; Lu, A.; Cao, H.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhao, Z. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1421.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top