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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1405; doi:10.3390/ijms17091405

In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone

1
Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, via Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milano, Italy
2
Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, PhD School in Life Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy
3
Regenerative Medicine Technologies Lab, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
4
Swiss Institute of Regenerative Medicine, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
5
Fondazione Cardiocentro Ticino, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Alfonsina Desiderio
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 25 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis)
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Abstract

Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone metastasis; breast carcinoma; in vitro models; co-culture bone metastasis; breast carcinoma; in vitro models; co-culture
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Arrigoni, C.; Bersini, S.; Gilardi, M.; Moretti, M. In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1405.

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