Next Article in Journal
Is Upregulation of Aquaporin 4-M1 Isoform Responsible for the Loss of Typical Orthogonal Arrays of Particles in Astrocytomas?
Next Article in Special Issue
Chemokine-Like Receptor 1 mRNA Weakly Correlates with Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Score in Male but Not Female Individuals
Previous Article in Journal
Association between IRS1 Gene Polymorphism and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Case-Control Study in Korean Males
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Metabolic Role of Gut Microbiota in the Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Disease
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1226; doi:10.3390/ijms17081226

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Expression Is Inversely Associated with Macroscopic Vascular Invasion in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1
Department and Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
2
Program in Molecular Medicine, National Yang-Ming University and Academia Sinica, Taipei 112, Taiwan
3
Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
4
Department of Surgery, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei 112, Taiwan
5
Department of Pathology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
6
Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
7
Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Johannes Haybaeck
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4652 KB, uploaded 29 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates cellular lipid and glucose metabolism and also plays an inhibitory role in various cancers. However, the role of PPARγ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of PPARγ in HCC and its role in inhibiting tumor progression, namely, HCC cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical PPARγ staining was examined in 83 HCC specimens to investigate the clinicopathological correlations between PPARγ expression and various parameters. The functional role of PPARγ was determined via PPARγ overexpression and knockdown in HCC cells. Patients with low HCC tissue PPARγ expression were significantly younger (p = 0.006), and exhibited more tumor numbers (p = 0.038), more macroscopic vascular invasion (MVI) (p = 0.008), and more advanced TNM (size of primary tumor, number of regional lymph nodes, and distant metastasis) stages at diagnosis (p = 0.013) than patients with high HCC tissue PPARγ expression. PPARγ knockdown increased HCC cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis, while PPARγ overexpression reduced HCC cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. These results suggest that low PPARγ expression is an independent predictor of more MVI in HCC patients. PPARγ contributes to the suppression of HCC cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Therefore, PPARγ may be a therapeutic target in HCC patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPARγ; macroscopic vascular invasion; hepatocellular carcinoma PPARγ; macroscopic vascular invasion; hepatocellular carcinoma
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, H.-T.; Sung, M.-T.; Lee, C.-C.; Kuo, Y.-J.; Chi, C.-W.; Lee, H.-C.; Hsia, C.-Y. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Expression Is Inversely Associated with Macroscopic Vascular Invasion in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1226.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top